Symptoms of food poisoning in a child. First aid, treatment and prevention
Each mother carefully refers to the issue of feeding her child, chooses the best foods, tries to give only freshly prepared meals. Despite this, food poisoning is not uncommon for young children. General weakness, abdominal pain, and especially significant fluid loss along with feces and vomit can pose a threat to the health of the baby in the absence of timely measures. In this regard, parents should clearly understand how to act when food poisoning in children and when to seek help from a doctor.
- Types and causes of food poisoning
- When you need a doctor
- First aid
- Medicine for poisoning
- Food after poisoning
Types and causes of food poisoning
Food poisoning, or intoxication is called an acute disorder of the gastrointestinal function, arising from the use of poor-quality or stale foods. Allocate the following reasons:
- the use of stale products affected by pathogens (streptococci, staphylococcus, E. coli, clostridia, salmonella ) and toxic products of their vital activity;
- the use of inedible or improperly prepared foods (poisonous mushrooms, certain types of fish and shellfish) containing toxins that are life-threatening to humans, which have not been neutralized during cooking;
- use of plant products treated with pests and plant diseases with poisonous chemicals (eg pesticides).
Most often, these poisonings in children occur in the summer. Food left without a refrigerator is very quickly damaged in the heat, as the speed of reproduction of bacteria increases significantly at high temperatures. In addition, in the summer appear favorite fruits and berries, which are often treated with various chemicals to give them a beautiful appearance. If the mother does not control, the child can take the fruit you like, which is in the easy access zone, and eat, forgetting to wash, resulting in a digestive tract disorder.
A high probability of poisoning occurs after the child has consumed fish and seafood, unboiled milk and dairy products (cottage cheese, yogurt, yoghurt, ice cream), raw eggs , soft-boiled eggs, fried eggs, meat and sausage products, canned food. It is dangerous to drink unboiled water, there are unwashed or not well-washed fresh vegetables, salad greens and fruits. You can not afford to buy pies, salads and other ready-made meals sold by weight in stores. Confectionery products (cakes, cakes with butter or protein cream) should be taken only in the tested retail outlets.
Especially dangerous for children is poisoning with fungi , which can contain toxins even after prolonged soaking and heat treatment. Mushrooms are generally not allowed to give babies up to 5 years, even in small amounts in the filling for pies or pancakes. They are a heavy and indigestible product for a small organism due to inadequate production of enzymes.
In addition to mushrooms, it is highly discouraged to give children canned food, sausages, ham, smoked meat, dried or salted fish, as these products can contain causative agents of botulism, producing deadly poisonous botulinum toxin in the nervous system.
Interesting: The optimal conditions for the development and reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms in food products are temperatures from 5 to 60 ° C and high humidity.
The sensitivity of children to the action of pathogenic microorganisms and toxins is much higher than that of adults, so poisoning occurs more often and is more severe. The younger the child, the worse he tolerates intoxication. Symptoms of food poisoning occur suddenly within 30 minutes to 48 hours after consuming a suspicious product. The disease is characterized by a sharp onset, causes inflammation and irritation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, the child is noted:
- repeated attacks of vomiting ;
- nausea, pain, spasms and colic in the abdomen;
- Diarrhea, possibly with mucus and greens in the stool ;
- chills, fever ( not above 38 ° C );
- general weakness, lethargy, capriciousness;
- lack of appetite.
In case of poisoning with fungi, children have convulsions, cold sweats, decreased heart rate, dizziness, dyspnea, hallucinations, and in case of botulinum pathogens (bacteria of the genus Clostridia) - fog, bifurcation in the eyes, difficulty in limb movement, gait disturbance, confused speech .
Food poisoning has similarities with intestinal infection, but is characterized by a more favorable course and is not contagious to others. The main differences of the intestinal infection are a longer incubation period and the time of the disease, an increase in body temperature above 38 ° C.
When you need a doctor
When food poisoning in a child, in most cases, you can cope on your own, without going to the doctor, but it will not be superfluous. However, there are a number of indications, in which one can not do without qualified medical care. These include the following situations:
- the child's age is less than 3 years;
- there is a temperature rise;
- in the meal accepted on the eve there were mushrooms;
- there are disorders of the nervous system (dizziness, bifurcation in the eyes, impaired coordination of movements, swallowing, slurred speech);
- yellowing of the skin, mucous membranes and sclera;
- in fecal or vomit masses there are impurities of blood;
- vomiting is indomitable;
- does not get a child to drink for several hours;
- symptoms of dehydration;
- poisoning is observed in several family members or children's collective;
- there were rashes on the skin.
It is also necessary to call a doctor if during home treatment of poisoning within two days there is no improvement in the child's condition. This may indicate that there are other causes of vomiting and diarrhea.
When poisoning the baby should be called "first aid", during her waiting is allowed only to water the baby. To vomit accidentally do not hit the respiratory tract, put the baby on its side.
When food poisoning begin to help the child need as early as possible. All the measures taken should, first of all, be aimed at cleaning the body of toxins and preventing dehydration.
One of the protective reflexes in the poisoning of the body is vomiting. If it does not happen spontaneously, then it is necessary to help the child clean the stomach. To do this, give him a drink 1-2 glasses of warm water, and then press a spoon on the root of the tongue or shove two fingers into his mouth. The procedure is repeated several times until the appearance of pure washing water.
Children under the age of 3 years to wash the stomach at home is not recommended, it is better to immediately go to the hospital. Gastric lavage begins already at the first signs of poisoning, which helps prevent the spread of toxins throughout the digestive tract, sucking them into the systemic circulation and significantly accelerating the improvement of the child's condition.
Vomiting and diarrhea provoke significant fluid loss, which can become critical for a small organism and lead to the development of dehydration, causing severe impairment of the functions of the internal organs (heart, brain, kidneys). Clear symptoms of dehydration are:
- pallor of the skin;
- rapid breathing and palpitations;
- lowering blood pressure;
- dry skin and mucous membranes;
- dry mouth;
- no urine for 4-6 hours or too concentrated urine.
To compensate for poisoning caused by a deficit of fluid, it is necessary to give a child a drink. Given that large volumes of fluid can cause vomiting due to stretching of the stomach, drink in small portions of 5-15 ml depending on the age every 5-10 minutes. The optimal drink in this situation will be special water-salt solutions for rehydration, which can be prepared at home independently in the proportion of 1 tsp. salt and 1 tbsp. l. sugar per liter of water or buy ready-mix for dilution with water in a pharmacy (rehydron, BioGaia OPC, humanan electrolyte, rheosolan, trisol, hydrovit, tridhydron, re-salt).
The more a child drinks liquids after poisoning, the better. The temperature of solutions for drinking should be close to body temperature. If the child refuses to drink water-salt solutions with a rather specific taste, you can give him simple boiled or non-carbonated mineral water, mors, weak tea, compote or any other, not even very useful, drink that he will agree to drink. It is better to drink anything than nothing at all, as the pediatrician Komarovsky EO draws attention to. Often drinking is indicated until the vomiting and frequent liquid stool cease.
Important: For a child under one year, the minimum volume of fluid recommended for poisoning is 200 ml per 1 kg of weight, for older children - 150 ml per 1 kg.
Medicine for poisoning
The main drugs that can be used for food poisoning in children without prescribing a doctor are enterosorbents. They bind and remove toxic compounds trapped in the digestive tract with spoiled food. They should be given immediately after the end of the gastric lavage procedure.
The most simple and accessible of them is activated charcoal. Its dosage for a child is calculated from the ratio of 1 g per 1 kg of body weight. To increase the effectiveness of activated carbon tablets are recommended to pre-crush into powder, which will increase the area of the adsorbing surface. From the resulting powder, prepare the suspension in boiled water and give a drink to the child. This same suspension is allowed to use and for gastric lavage. In addition to activated carbon, sorbents (smect, enterosgel, lactofiltrum, polysorb, polyphepan) can be used.
In the case of an increase in the child's temperature above 38 ° C, antipyretic agents containing paracetamol or ibuprofen in an age-appropriate dosage form are given.
Also in the recovery period after poisoning, children are prescribed medications that normalize the intestinal microflora (probiotics and prebiotics) and enzymes to prevent dysbacteriosis and other complications. However, the need for their use is coordinated with the doctor.
Warning: For food poisoning in children, it is unacceptable to prescribe antibacterial, antiemetic, analgesic and antidiarrhoeic agents.
Video: Tips for First Aid for Food Poisoning from Pediatrician E. Komarovsky
Food after poisoning
When symptoms of poisoning appear, there is nothing to feed the child until his condition stabilizes and appetite appears, which is one of the signs of recovery. It is necessary to give the body time to recover, and the GIT to relax. For a minimum of a week after poisoning, it is recommended that you follow a diet. Food should be given often (up to 8 times a day), but in small portions so as not to overload the digestive tract. Food should be light and gentle, not hot and not cold, crushed, liquid or semi-liquid consistency.
Immediately after poisoning, when the child asks to eat, but not earlier than 4-6 hours after the last attack of vomiting, you can offer him a biscuit, baked apples, liquid rice or oatmeal cooked on the water. In the future, add boiled eggs, crackers, yesterday's bread, boiled potatoes or mashed potatoes, boiled or steamed lean meat, vegetable soup, yogurt, kefir. Categorically it is not recommended to give milk in the first days after poisoning, fatty, spicy food, fresh vegetables and fruits, smoked products, canned goods, fresh bread, sweets, spices, freshly squeezed juices, sweet soda water. The transition from diet to regular food should be smooth and gradual.
To prevent food poisoning in the child, you need to follow basic rules of personal hygiene, the regime of storage and cooking products. The main responsibility for the fact that this happened, falls on the shoulders of adults. Prevention includes the following measures:
- Control that the child washed his hands with soap before eating, after coming home from the street and visiting the toilet. The duration of hand treatment with soapy water must be at least 30 seconds.
- Washing of fresh vegetables and fruits, and better by chopping them with boiling water before consumption.
- Storage of cooked meals in the refrigerator is no more than 48 hours.
- Avoiding meals in a fast food cafe and other dubious places, buying and consuming buns, pies or other products in unauthorized outlets on the street.
- Compliance with the rules for cooking, defrosting, freezing and storing products, ensuring cleanliness of utensils, work surfaces and kitchen accessories, washing hands before, during and after cooking.
- Compliance with the requirements for heat treatment of products, careful boiling and roasting of raw meat, poultry and fish.
- Control of cleanliness and temperature on the shelves of the refrigerator (below 15 ° C in the freezer and below 5 ° C in the refrigerator).
- Check the shelf life of products before purchasing.
- Elimination of the use by the child of unboiled milk, bought on the market of thermally uncooked cottage cheese.
It is necessary to refuse the use of products, the smell or appearance of which causes the slightest suspicion.