Treatment of a cold in children, taking into account age and cause
Coryza, which is a mucus discharge from the nasal passages, can be a symptom of various diseases. Most often it is an integral companion of the common cold and acute respiratory disease. Most susceptible to its appearance are children attending kindergartens and schools, daily contacting with a large number of potential vectors of infection. In addition to a temporary sense of discomfort and difficulty in nasal breathing with improper treatment, a common and safe runny nose can cause serious complications. In this regard, parents should clearly know how to act when it appears.
- Causes of a cold
- Symptoms of a cold
- Principles of treatment of a cold
- Treatment of children depending on the type of rhinitis
- Cleaning and washing the nose
- Moisturizing drops
- Vasodilating drops and sprays
- Preparations with antiseptic, antiviral and antibacterial action
- Antiallergic agents
- Treatment with folk remedies
Causes of a cold
Rhinitis, rhinitis, is a defensive reaction of the body, because together with secretions from the nasal cavity pathogenic microbes, allergens, dust are excreted. It often occurs in response to too dry air in order to prevent the mucous membrane from drying out. In children, the common cold develops for the following reasons:
- ARVI and bacterial infections ;
- contact with allergens (pets, flowering plants, odors, washing powder, food, etc.);
- being in a dusty room, exposure to smoke;
- trauma and burns of the nasal mucosa;
- disorders in the work of the autonomic nervous system;
- exposure to cold air and a sharp temperature drop;
- proliferation of lymphoid tissue in the nasopharynx ( adenoids );
- curvature of the nasal septum, deformed and enlarged shells of the nose;
- getting into the nasal passages of a small foreign object (bead, ball).
Babies at the age of 2.5 months have a physiological runny nose, caused by the adaptation of the organism to new conditions of life. It does not require treatment. The main task of parents is only to ensure a comfortable temperature and humidity level in the room where the child is.
Symptoms of a cold
Particularly difficult to disturb the physiological functions of the nose are borne by small children. They become restless, capricious, can not sleep properly. In infants, a stuffy nose causes difficulty in feeding, as when suckling a baby, the baby has to stop periodically and breathe through the mouth. If it hits the back of the nasopharynx, the draining mucus provokes vomiting reflexes.
Coryza on the background of ARVI
Affects both nasal passages simultaneously, lasts usually 7-10 days and is accompanied by the following symptomatology:
- weakness, lethargy;
- Perspiration and dryness in the throat;
- sneezing and itching in the nose;
- loss of appetite;
- mucous discharge from the nose (initially liquid and transparent, then thick with a yellow-green color in case of bacterial infection);
- redness and swelling of the nasal mucosa;
- deterioration of perception of taste and smell.
In ARVI, as a rule, the temperature rises.
Appears suddenly after contact with the allergen. Has a seasonal character or is constantly present. It manifests itself in the form:
- edema of the mucous membranes of the nose and larynx;
- severe itching in the nasal cavity;
- transparent mucous discharge of liquid consistency;
- perspiration and itching in the throat, dry cough ;
When eliminating the allergen, the symptoms tend to pass quickly.
Principles of treatment of a cold
Rhinitis in the child is characterized by rapid development and rapid deterioration of the condition, as the nasal passages are narrow, the mucous membrane is tender, so even a slight swelling immediately causes difficulty in breathing.
To determine the right therapy, you need to find out the cause. And it is natural that the doctor (pediatrician or children's ENT) will best cope with this task, as indicated by the famous pediatrician Komarovsky EO. Parents should pay attention to the symptoms that are present besides the mucous discharge from the nose, and report them to the doctor. Mandatory treatment to a doctor requires a runny nose in children of the first year of life.
Treatment of children depending on the type of rhinitis
In case of an allergic rhinitis, first of all it is important to identify and eliminate the allergen. In most cases this is enough to make it end. To facilitate the condition, the child is prescribed local and systemic antihistamines.
With viral infection, no specific treatment is required. Immediate struggle with the pathogen is "engaged" in the immune system. It is necessary only to provide the child with the conditions for the relief of nasal breathing and excretion of mucus. These include:
- frequent airing of the room where the patient is;
- regular wet cleaning;
- maintaining the temperature in the house within 18-22 ° C and humidity at a level of 60-70% is better with a special humidifier, in the absence of it you can periodically spray the room with a spray gun or put containers with water near the heating appliances;
- food for appetite;
- abundant warm drink (water, tea, compote, mors);
- provision during the stay in the bed of the head and upper body position of the child at an angle of 45 °.
These requirements are relevant for any type of common cold in the child, as well as its prevention.
Treatment of a cold in a child includes procedures for cleaning the nasal cavity and the local effects of drugs in the form of drops, sprays, inhalations. In difficult situations, additionally prescribed drugs for ingestion (lymphomyositis, sinupret, miles nose).
In case of a cold, the following means are used for the child:
- moistening drops;
- antiallergic agents;
- drops and sprays with antiseptic, antiviral and antibacterial action;
- preparations for liquefaction of too thick mucus (rhinofluucimil);
- local homeopathic remedies (euphorbium compositum, benofen, rhinitol EDAS 131);
- Combined products containing several active components with different pharmacological effects.
Local remedies for the nose with a cold are available in the form of drops or sprays. Sprays are more convenient because they provide an even distribution of the drug and do not require a horizontal position with the head thrown back to use them. However, they can only be used after two years, which is associated with a high risk of casting mucus in the middle ear and paranasal sinuses.
Cleaning and washing the nose
Nasal flushing is a necessary procedure for the successful and rapid treatment of the common cold. It helps to mechanically get rid of accumulated secretions, dust, allergens, viruses and bacteria. It must necessarily be done before instillation of medicinal products, since only in this case the drug will fall on the mucous membrane, rather than on the dried out discharge. If you do not clean your nose in time, the mucus will accumulate in the nasal cavity and create excellent conditions for the reproduction of bacteria, which is especially noteworthy for the parents of the pediatrician E. Komarovsky
To clean the nose in a cold in infants and young children it is convenient to use aspirators (Nose Frida, Marimer, B.Well WC-150 "Clean nose"), pre-dripping the baby in the nasal passages saline or commercially available in a wide range of sea salt solutions. Saline solution for these purposes can be prepared and independently from 9 g salt and a liter of boiled water. The dried crusts are moistened with a saline solution or softened with oil (olive, peach, almond, grape seed, marigold) and alternately remove them from each nostril with a cotton turunda, a twisted piece of bandage or gauze.
If the child is already able to blow his nose, then you need to teach him to do it right. Soply should be blown out effortlessly, alternately from each nostril. In this case, the mouth should be slightly ajar, and the other nostril is pressed with a finger. It is best to use disposable paper napkins for labeling.
It is strongly advised not to use pears or syringes to wash the nose of a child, since the pressure created during the procedure easily traumatizes the tender mucous membrane of the nasal cavity and the tympanic membrane. In addition, the likelihood of getting mucus in the auditory tube and the development of otitis increases. It is better to use a special system for washing the nose of the child (physiomer, humer, dolphin, aquamaris, aqualor).
Moisturizing drops are designed for liquefaction, preventing drying and facilitating the excretion of mucus present in the nasal cavity of the child with a runny nose. In composition they are aqueous solutions of ordinary or sea salt. Bury them in the nose of the child can be quite often 3-4 drops in each nostril. These include drops and sprays:
- an aqualor;
These drugs have no contraindications and side effects except for allergic reactions and can be used without prescribing a doctor.
Video: How to quickly wash and moisturize the nose to the baby
Vasodilating drops and sprays
Vasoconstrictors are used as a symptomatic tool for rapid and prolonged (from 6 to 12 hours) relief of nasal breathing. They do not have a therapeutic effect, but only temporarily reduce the mucosal edema, nasal congestion and intensity of secretions. Use them for a runny nose you need no more than 5-7 days in a row only in extreme cases with complete absence or significant difficulty in nasal breathing and inefficiency of other ways of its recovery.
The choice of a specific drug is carried out by a doctor, taking into account the age and features of the child's health, parents should strictly follow the prescribed dosage. Vasoconstrictors can cause addiction and serious side effects, including increased arterial and intraocular pressure, tachycardia, dizziness, sleep disturbances .
The following vasoconstrictive drops are used for children:
- naphthyzine from 1 year;
- sanorin from 3 years;
- nazole baby from 2 months;
- nazivin sensitiv from birth;
- noxepray baby from 1 year;
- children from 2 years;
- vibration from birth;
- tizin for children from 2 years;
Bury the baby drops in the nose to prevent them from swallowing and better contact with the mucosa as follows: tilt the head, enter the required number of drops in the nasal passage, and then tilt the head down and press the nostril, repeat the procedure on the other side.
Preparations with antiseptic, antiviral and antibacterial action
With a common cold of infectious etiology, drugs that affect the causative agent of the disease are prescribed.
In viral rhinitis, oksolinovuyu ointment, drops with interferon (nasoferon, geneferon, influferon) and immunomodulators (derinat, poludan, IRS 19), which increase local immunity, are used. Especially effective use for the prevention of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections, as well as in the early stages of the disease. Use of such drugs for medicinal purposes is allowed for children up to one year and older.
Drops and sprays containing antibiotics are used with caution, since they can cause severe side effects in the child. These drugs will be useful only in the treatment of a cold caused by a bacterial infection. Only the doctor should prescribe them after the survey. These include:
- isofra with an antibiotic, Framicetin, from 1 year;
- polidex with antibiotics neomycin and polymyxin B, dexamethasone (anti-inflammatory) and phenylephrine (vasoconstrictor) from 15 years;
- bioparox with an antibiotic fusafungin from 2.5 years.
Antibacterial activity is also possessed by preparations based on colloidal silver (protargol, collargol, sialor). They have an antiseptic, astringent and anti-inflammatory effect, exhibit bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. You can apply them from birth.
Antiseptic action has complex drops based on furacilin. They are used for chronic or long-lasting colds. In addition to furatsilina they contain antibiotic, antihistamine or anti-inflammatory components.
When confirming the child's allergic rhinitis for relief of allergic reactions, it is necessary to use antihistamines. They are issued in the form of local and systemic means. For topical application appoint:
- spray kromogeksal;
- drops allergodyl;
- droplets of iphirals;
- spray kromoglin;
- drugs with hormones glucocorticosteroids (baconase, flix, nasobek, fliksonaze, Nazakort).
For oral administration with severe allergy, the child is prescribed syrups, drops and tablets based on levocetirizine, cetirizine, ebastin desloratadine, azelastine, ebastin. Take them 1-2 times a day.
Antiallergic drugs are used not only for allergic, but also for an infectious rhinitis. They quickly remove the swelling of the mucous and facilitate breathing. Use them only if prescribed by the doctor.
Inhalations in the treatment of cold can be performed with a steam or compressor inhaler (nebulizer). Some models of instruments have special nose attachments, but no less effective use of a conventional mask. Many modern inhalers have an interesting design, made in the form of animals, locomotive, typewriter, which allows the child not to be afraid of the procedure, but to fulfill it with pleasure.
Steam inhalers act on the upper respiratory tract. They use infusions of medicinal herbs, oil-based products, homeopathic preparations, mineral waters. The principle of action is to heat the solution to produce steam, which when inhaled affects the mucous membrane, which is inflamed in the rhinitis. Such inhalations can not be given to babies at an early age because of the risk of burning with a mucous slimy hot steam.
Unlike steam inhalers, nebulizers turn a liquid into an aerosol - the smallest suspended particles, and many devices allow for the use of different sprayers to produce particles of a certain size. The smaller the particle, the deeper it penetrates the respiratory tract. They are allowed to use from birth. With the help of such an inhaler, you can inject medications (antiseptics, antibiotics, mucolytics, bronchodilators and others), saline solutions.
In the absence of an inhaler, steam inhalations are performed as follows. Hot solutions of medicinal plants (decoction of pine buds, eucalyptus leaves, raspberries, sage, herb of oregano, St. John's wort, mother-and-stepmother, calendula flowers and chamomile) are poured into the pan or bowl with a temperature of no more than 40 ° C. Then at a distance of at least 30 cm, tilt your head over the dishes, cover it with a towel and inhale outgoing steam. You can use not boils, but boiled water with the addition of fir oil, eucalyptus, pine, juniper.
Inhalation may be carried out at body temperature not higher than 37.5 ° C, 1.5 hours before or after meals. After the procedure, the child should avoid cold air and drafts.
Video: Mom's experience: how to do inhalations with saline solution
Treatment with folk remedies
Treatment of a common cold with folk remedies is only permissible after consultation with a doctor. The medicinal plants used can cause severe allergic reactions. Do not experiment with the baby by digging into the nose juice of onions or garlic, carrots, beets, essential oils or breast milk. These methods not only will not be of use, but will cause even more irritation of the inflamed mucous membrane of the nose.
With a cold, warming foot baths (water temperature 38 ° C) with mustard powder or decoctions of medicinal herbs are effective. They are recommended to be performed before bedtime, and then put on warm socks. Local warming of the nose with a freshly brewed egg, potatoes in a uniform, heated salt and croup is also recommended. To perform such a procedure, the heat source is placed in a handkerchief or pouch and applied to the nose on each side for 10-15 minutes, while the head should be tilted downwards to prevent the flowing mucus from flowing into the maxillary sinuses. The temperature of such a compress should be comfortable for the child, so as not to provoke a burn. Before doing such warming up, it is necessary to take into account that they are contraindicated in otitis , a rhinitis caused by sinusitis , a frontitis.
To improve immunity for cold and flu, internal reception of herbal teas with raspberries, currants, linden, sage, mint, chamomile, honey and lemon helps.
Runny nose in children, especially small children, in the absence of timely and proper treatment fraught with a high risk of complications, which is due to the peculiarities of the structure of the nasopharynx. The most common of these is otitis. This is due to the fact that the auditory tube of the child is short, horizontal and has a wide lumen, so the risk of infection from the nose into the middle ear cavity is significantly increased.
Among other complications, the transition of the common cold to a chronic form (chronic rhinitis), penetration of infection into the paranasal sinuses (sinusitis) and the underlying organs of the respiratory system (pharyngitis, laryngitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonia ) is possible. Complications of an allergic rhinitis can be bronchial asthma.
Frequent inflammation of the nasal mucosa and a protracted runny nose provoke inflammation and hypertrophy of the pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids).