Diffuse fibrocystic breast mastopathy: symptoms, diagnosis, treatment
Breast diseases most often occur on the background of hormonal disorders. Finding a seal in the mammary gland, a woman should visit a mammologist, after all, the earlier the diagnosis is carried out, the easier and more successful the treatment will be. If there are several nodules, they are painful, this can be a manifestation of benign pathology - diffuse fibrocystic mastopathy. At an early stage, there is usually enough conservative therapy. The operation is performed only in case of a real danger of malignant degeneration of tumors.
- What is fibrocystic mastopathy?
- Signs and symptoms of mastopathy
- Causes of mastopathy
- Peculiarities of the disease in pregnant women
What is fibrocystic mastopathy?
Mastopathy is a very common pathology. In this disease there is a change in the structure of individual mammary gland tissues, their pathological proliferation. Depending on what kind of tissue begins to predominate, there is a glandular, fibrous or mixed form of mastopathy. Sometimes there is a replacement of the connective and glandular tissue with fat (with fibrous-fatty form). Distinguish nodal mastopathy (seals single) and diffuse (there is a group of small nodules).
The formation is characterized by seals, consisting of a connective (fibrous) tissue, divided into small cysts, filled with liquid. Perhaps the predominance of fibrous or cystic elements of the structure. Fibrous-cystic mastopathy is a benign pathology of the mammary glands, but if the hormonal imbalance is not eliminated in time, a malignant neoplasm arises against it, which at first signs can not be distinguished from fibrocystic mastopathy.
Depending on the nature of the manifestations, there are 3 forms of diffuse pathology: pronounced insignificant, moderate and pronounced. Seals with diffuse strongly expressed fibrocystic mastopathy are found only in one mammary gland or both (which is observed more often). Fibrous-cystic mastopathy diffuse type is most often found in women of childbearing age (up to 40 years).
In newborns and young girls, there is a so-called physiological fibrous-cystic mastopathy associated with abrupt changes in the hormonal background. As a rule, it is restored independently, the pathology disappears.
Signs and symptoms of mastopathy
Recognize diffuse mastopathy of this type by the presence of the following signs:
- The appearance of multiple moving seals in any part of the breast or all of its volume.
- Swelling and tenderness of the mammary glands , increasing in the second half of the menstrual cycle, when the size of the neoplasm increases. The pain is burning, stitching, aching, there is a feeling of bursting.
- Enlargement of lymph nodes in the axillary region. Their swelling and soreness can be either insignificant or strong.
With a moderate and pronounced form of diffuse fibrocystic pathology , discharge from the nipple appears . They can be transparent, white or yellowish, but sometimes they contain impurities of blood, which indicates the damage to the small blood vessels that penetrate the mammary gland.
If the inflammatory process begins, there may be redness of the chest, an increase in body temperature. On the deterioration of the state says the appearance of headache, dizziness, nausea, fainting.
Warning: Regular self-diagnostics play an important role, allowing to detect the first signs of pathology by examining and palpating the mammary glands. Do not self-medicate without knowing the exact diagnosis. This is extremely dangerous, since it leads to an accelerated growth of neoplasms, the nature of which can be not only benign.
Video: What is fibro-cystic formation, how to recognize it
Causes of mastopathy
The main cause of diffuse fibrocystic pathology is a hormonal failure in the body , in which estrogen predominates in the ratio of female sex hormones. Factors contributing to the appearance of hormonal abnormalities are:
- disorders of ovarian function as a result of inflammatory processes, cysts or tumors in the organs of the reproductive system;
- tumor diseases of the pituitary gland and other endocrine glands;
- long-term use of hormonal drugs (for example, in the treatment of infertility or to eliminate menstrual disorders);
- use of contraceptives with increased estrogen content;
- refusal of breastfeeding or too long lactation;
- artificial termination of pregnancy;
- hormonal restructuring during the onset of puberty or premenopause (including early onset of menopause).
In the group at risk of disease with diffuse mastopathy of this type are women who have a hereditary predisposition to pathologies in the mammary glands.
Peculiarities of the disease in pregnant women
The presence of such a disease is not an obstacle to the birth of a healthy child. Sometimes the pathology is detected after the onset of pregnancy. When visiting a mammologist, a woman must necessarily inform the doctor about her special condition, since pregnant women can not perform mammograms, as well as examination of milk ducts using contrast fluid.
During this period, it is impossible to use many medicines, including plant, since they do not work well for the fetus, can provoke miscarriage. Appointed basically only anesthetizing and soothing drugs, rarely - funds for hormonal correction.
Video: Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment of Fibrocystic Mastopathy
When there are seals and other signs of the disease of the mammary glands, instrumental and laboratory diagnostics are prescribed.
Mammography allows us to clarify the form of mastopathy, to determine the localization and appearance of tumor nodes. The picture is taken in two projections.
Ultrasound is used to detect cysts and diagnose organ tissue proliferation.
Blood test. It is conducted to detect hormonal disorders and allows you to understand the cause of the disease. For consultation, an endocrinologist is involved.
Smear. In the presence of secretions from the nipple, a study is made of their composition.
Biopsy. From the seals found in the mammary glands, using a syringe, tissue samples are taken for histological examination, confirming the nature of the pathology.
Pneumocystography ( fine needle biopsy ). Suction of fluid from the cyst is performed to study the structure and shape of the cells. Then the cavity is filled with air. An x-ray of the breast is made in 2 projections to determine the shape and size of the cyst, to detect the formation of growths on its internal surface. In some cases, cysts can be eliminated, glued to their walls with a special substance ("sclerotherapy" is performed).
Ductography. In this study, a contrast solution is injected into the milk ducts, followed by a mammogram. This allows you to know in what state they are, whether there are any changes in the structure of glandular tissue.
Radiometry. The method is based on the difference in the intensity of electromagnetic radiation and the temperature of healthy and diseased tissues. Used when there is a suspicion of malignant seals.
The patient is referred for an additional examination to the gynecologist for the detection of diseases of the genital organs, which could lead to a violation of the hormonal background.
Most often, conservative methods are used: drug therapy, physiotherapy. An important role is played by a change in the nature of nutrition. Much less commonly used surgical method.
First of all, the treatment of diseases leading to hormonal imbalance. In order to eliminate it and reduce the concentration of estrogens in the blood, hormonal preparations are prescribed:
- funds based on progesterone (morning, dyufaston), as well as COC (janin, marvelon);
- preparations-analogues of pituitary hormones regulating the production of estrogens (zoladex, buserelin);
- drugs that increase the content of androgens in the body of a woman (methyltestosterone);
- means for reducing the level of prolactin (parlodel).
The effect of estrogens on the body is also suppressed with the help of nonsteroidal drugs, which reduce the sensitivity of the nerve receptors to these hormones (tamoxifen). For the purpose of regulating the level of progesterones and prolactin, homeopathic remedies of mastodinone, remens, are used. To restore the functions of the thyroid gland and eliminate hypothyroidism, iodine preparations (iodomarine) are prescribed.
Anti-inflammatory treatment is performed using drugs such as diclofenac, Nise. They can eliminate pain in the mammary gland. To eliminate edema in the chest, diuretics (furosemide) are used.
Vitaminotherapy is necessary to strengthen the defenses of the body. Particular emphasis is placed on the use of vitamins A, C, E and group B. Relieve emotional stress and thereby improve the hormonal background allow sedatives.
In the treatment of diffuse mastopathy, various gels and creams are used, for example, progestogen (with progesterone), ointment-balm healer (anti-inflammatory action), traumel C (to reduce pain and inflammation).
Methods of physiotherapy (acupuncture, electrophoresis, laser therapy, radon baths and others) are used, which make it possible to slow down the development of the nodes and strengthen the body. Great importance is attached to diet, the fight against excess weight.
It is acceptable to use traditional medicine, which has a calming effect (infusions of motherwort, valerian, mint and other plants). At home, to reduce inflammation and pain, ointments with camphor, propolis, celandine can be used. To absorb the seals take tinctures and broths of boron, burdock, red brushes.
It is made only in the case of a rapid increase in the size and number of seals, when relapses occur, or if there are suspicions of cancer . In this case, resection of the affected area of the breast is performed, if necessary - together with surrounding tissues.
In order to reduce the likelihood of diffuse cystic mastopathy, it is necessary to eliminate the impact on the body of harmful factors (stress, chest injuries, obesity), to abandon bad habits, as well as from visiting the solarium. It is necessary to constantly conduct self-monitoring of the state of the mammary glands and regularly undergo gynecological and mammologic examinations.
Any hormonal preparations (including contraceptives) can be consumed only on the advice of a doctor.