What is dangerous is an overdose of vitamin D for adults and children
Vitamins are the catalysts of all biochemical reactions occurring in the body and ensuring its viability. Everyone knows that the lack of vitamins is bad. In many cases, their supplementary reception is prescribed in the form of special preparations, which helps to strengthen immunity and to resist the influence of negative factors. However, like any biologically active substance, vitamins benefit only in a certain dose, exceeding which can cause great harm. In particular, it is very dangerous to exceed the intake of vitamin D.
- What is Vitamin D
- The functions of this substance in the body
- The need for vitamin D (table)
- Than the overdose is dangerous
- Contraindications to the intake of vitamin D preparations
- Symptoms of an overdose of vitamin D
- Symptoms of acute overdose
- Symptoms of chronic overdose
- Features of overdose manifestations in children and adults
- In pregnancy
- After childbirth
- With menopause
- Recommendations for the prevention of overdose
What is Vitamin D
Vitamin D is a group of biologically active substances, derivatives of calciferol, capable of affecting the calcium content in the body. They are formed under the influence of ultraviolet radiation from provitamins present in human skin. Provitamins appear directly in the body from cholesterol, or come from plant or animal food.
Under the commonly used term "vitamin D" is usually meant vitamins D2 (ergocalciferol) and D3 (cholecalciferol).
The content of these substances in the body is affected by the following factors:
- skin color (the darker the skin, the worse it produces such a component);
- age (in the aging skin, the production of this substance is reduced);
- climatic conditions (the intensity of UV irradiation depends on the duration of daylight hours and the number of sunny days per year);
- environmental environment (dust polluted or contaminated with industrial waste air misses UV rays better).
Vitamin D is rich in parsley, sea kale, fatty fish, caviar, high-fat milk products, egg yolk, yeast. With a normal diet and a sufficiently long stay of a person under sunlight, the daily requirement of the organism for this substance is completely covered.
In the presence of adverse factors to prevent the effects of avitaminosis (primarily rickets) it is necessary to compensate for its shortage with the help of synthetic drugs. It is important not to overdose vitamin D.
Video: Properties and functions of vitamin D
The functions of this substance in the body
The uniqueness lies in the fact that it is not only an accelerator of reactions involving calcium and phosphorus, but also a stimulating hormone producing a special protein in the small intestine. Without this protein, it is impossible to absorb such elements into the blood and to enter them into the muscles and kidneys, that is, the realization of the mineral metabolism.
This fat-soluble vitamin accumulates in bone and adipose tissue, ensures the maintenance of calcium balance, preventing the development of rickets and osteoporosis. It stimulates the growth of skin cells, strengthening of muscle and nerve fibers.
The substance supports the functioning of the thyroid gland and the immune system, participates in the regulation of blood clotting, blood pressure, prevents the development of cancer cells. Therefore, synthetic vitamin D is actively used as a medicine for many diseases, including breast cancer or rectum in women.
The need for vitamin D (table)
The daily requirement for this substance is significantly increased in pregnant women, as the skeleton and muscles of the fetus are formed. Breastfeeding mothers through breast milk supply this developing baby with the vitamin. This protects him from rickets and developmental disorders.
Category of people, age
Daily requirement for vitamin D, μg (in Russian conditions)
11-18 years old
19-75 and more years
19-75 and more years
Than the overdose is dangerous
An overdose of vitamin D occurs with uncontrolled intake or prolonged therapeutic use of synthetic vitamins. Poisoning of children can occur with the occasional use of a vitamin remedy left in an accessible place for them.
Unlike water-soluble substances, fat-soluble vitamin is not excreted in the urine, accumulates in the body. Its excess leads to the deposition of calcium in various tissues. Consequences of an overdose in women of any age can be:
- the appearance of calcification in the mammary glands , which disrupt the structure of their tissues, blood vessels;
- disruption of the thyroid and other endocrine glands, leading to hormonal failure , hormonal disorders contribute to the emergence of many diseases and menstrual disorders;
- disruption of kidney function, formation of stones;
- deposition of calcium in the blood vessels, violation of cardiac activity.
There is also a decrease in immunity and an increase in susceptibility to infectious and inflammatory diseases.
Video: Consequences of hypervitaminosis
Contraindications to the intake of vitamin D preparations
The use of this vitamin is contraindicated in people who have symptoms of excess calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia) or in the urine (hypercalciuria), suffering from thrombophlebitis, and allergies to this substance. Its use should be avoided in the treatment of cardiac glycosides (drugs slowing the pulse).
Note: With extreme caution, vitamin D is prescribed to fat people and bedridden patients who have a slow metabolism.
Symptoms of an overdose of vitamin D
Overdose can be manifested in acute and chronic form.
Acute intoxication occurs as a result of taking large doses of vitamin D for 2-3 weeks. Often, this condition is observed in young children with the simultaneous appointment of a vitamin preparation and UV therapy ( to improve immunity ). Often acute poisoning occurs in adults, if their body is particularly sensitive to this substance.
Chronic poisoning occurs if vitamin D is taken for a long time (for more than 6 months) in a dose slightly exceeding the need.
Symptoms of acute overdose
In case of acute poisoning with vitamin D, symptoms such as increased thirst, dry skin sensation, loss of appetite, drowsiness occur. Signs of acute overdose are also increased pressure, decreased heart rate, arrhythmia. Cramps in calf muscles may be disturbing.
At the same time, there is digestive upset, frequent urination, nausea and vomiting, a feeling of constant fatigue, and loss of consciousness.
Symptoms of chronic overdose
Signs of chronic overdose are sleep disturbances, weakness, increased irritability, pain in the bones and muscles, convulsions, disruption of the liver, kidneys, digestive system. There are swelling on the face and body , low back pain, unexplained weight loss.
Video: Danger of hypervitaminosis D in children
Features of overdose manifestations in children and adults
Overdose in infants usually occurs with prolonged misuse of the drug. Excessive accumulation occurs even with daily intake of vitamin D in a normal dose, if the child has congenital pathologies of development.
Manifestations of acute intoxication are restless behavior, poor sleep, regurgitation, frequent urination and constipation, lack of weight gain, dry skin. The consequences of an overdose in young children is the improper development of the skeleton and various organs, including the genitourinary and digestive system. Perhaps a sharp decrease in immunity.
In adolescent girls and adult women with an overdose of vitamin D symptoms are:
- pressure jumps, weak pulse;
- lack of appetite, nausea and vomiting, sudden weight loss;
- alternating diarrhea with constipation;
- dry skin and the appearance of a gray shade;
- constant thirst, dry mouth;
- unreasonable increase in body temperature ;
- muscle cramps;
The abolition of vitamin D intake and the limitation of exposure to sunlight usually resolve the problem.
Consequences of hypervitaminosis in a pregnant woman can be a threat of miscarriage, delayed development of the fetus, the appearance of such pathologies as malformation of the skeleton, kidney damage, cardiovascular system. The woman has a calcium deposit in the kidneys, their functioning is disturbed.
Possible inflammatory diseases (pyelonephritis, pneumonia) due to a sharp decrease in immunity, as well as disruption of the thyroid and other endocrine organs.
Hypervitaminosis in a nursing woman is dangerous not only for her, but for a child who receives excessive doses of vitamin D in breast milk. In a nursing mother, the likelihood of calcium deposition in the milk ducts increases, the appearance of milk stagnation, as well as mastitis. In addition, the excess component in the body contributes to the development of postpartum depression , reducing the body's resistance to infections.
In the elderly, women should be especially cautious about taking multivitamin preparations. It is necessary to adhere to a diet, to limit the use of foods with a high content of vitamin D. Its excess can aggravate the characteristic ailments that arise in connection with the aging of the body, such as frequent fractures of bones, vascular and cardiac diseases, nervous disorders.
If there are symptoms of acute overdose of vitamin D immediately stop taking it and give the person first aid. It consists in washing the stomach with a lot of water with potassium permanganate (it is necessary to induce vomiting).
A laxative is given, and after bowel movement, the sorbent (activated charcoal or other agent). This allows you to reduce the concentration of toxin in the body.
An "ambulance" is caused in cases when poisoning is observed in a child, a pregnant woman or an elderly person. In this case, they have severe vomiting and diarrhea (especially with blood), signs of dehydration, blood pressure, convulsions, fainting.
In the hospital, therapy is carried out with drugs that eliminate the harmful effects of vitamin D, the elimination of dehydration and its consequences, substitution therapy with vitamins A and B. Anti-inflammatory antibiotics, as well as drugs for restoring the heart, kidneys, liver and other organs are prescribed.
Recommendations for the prevention of overdose
To prevent excess vitamin D in the body, it is necessary to study the instructions attached to the drugs, paying attention to its content in 1 tablet or capsule. They are applied only on the prescription of the doctor, which takes into account the composition of the complex means and the possible consequences of simultaneous reception of certain components.
When there are signs of intoxication, it is necessary to check the composition of blood and urine for the maintenance of calcium and phosphorus in them.