Adenovirus infection in children: causes, symptoms, treatment, complications
Respiratory viral diseases most often affect children in the cold season. The most favorable environment for the reproduction of adenoviruses are the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, intestines and eyes. Therefore, typical manifestations of ARVI adenovirus type are a runny nose, cough, diarrhea and conjunctivitis. The child's organism is more susceptible to the effects of infectious agents due to imperfections of immune defense. Most parents know this. It is important to have an accurate picture of the symptoms of the disease, possible complications and treatment approach.
- Adenovirus infection, its causative agent
- Causes of the disease
- Types of disease, complications
- Symptoms of infection
- Types of adenoviral diseases
Adenovirus infection, its causative agent
Adenovirus infection is one of the forms of ARVI . Especially often children of young age are ill, even those who seem to have strong immunity. The fact that there are many varieties of adenovirus - the causative agent of the disease. Every time a child gets sick, he develops permanent immunity, but only to a virus of one kind. Therefore, it should not be surprising that approximately up to 5-6 years, even the most seasoned baby several times during the winter there are a runny nose, coughing and other signs of a viral illness.
Subsequently, the resistance of the body to the effects of these microorganisms increases, so colds occur less often, and complications become less likely and severe. The least common adenovirus infection occurs in infants, because they have so-called "passive immunity". Antibodies to viruses get into their blood before birth through the placenta, and then transmitted to them through the mother's milk. However, the disease in these babies still sometimes occurs, which is due to the lack of resistant immunity to adenoviruses in the mother.
Adenovirus and its features
The causative agent of this infection is resistant to environmental conditions. At normal temperature, it retains its viability up to 2 weeks. It can be found in the dust of premises, in the air, on children's toys.
The virus withstands low temperatures, dies only when boiled or exposed to direct sunlight. In the environment, it comes with saliva, secretions from the nose when sneezing, coughing and talking sick person. The causative agent of infection is also in its feces.
How does the infection develop in the body?
Getting into the body, the virus enters the cells of the mucous membranes, also penetrates into the lymph nodes. If immunity does not cope with the virus, it destroys the cells, captures the following. Distribution occurs through lymph and blood. In this case, there are symptoms of inflammation of the mucous membranes, lymph nodes, as well as poisoning the body with the products of vital activity of this microbe. Subsequently, in uncomplicated course, the virus dies and the child recovers.
The incubation period lasts from 2 to 12 days. The main danger is that the effect of the virus weakens the body's immune defense. This creates an opportunity for easy penetration and multiplication of bacteria in various organs. There are complications, which require long-term treatment with antibiotics .
Causes of the disease
The main causes of infection of children with adenovirus are direct contact with a sick person, non-compliance with hygiene rules. Staying in a crowded place (including in a children's team), as well as hypothermia increase the risk of catching an infection. In the autumn-winter period, the emergence of epidemics of a viral infection.
You can get infected if you get such an infection in the intestines, on the mucous membranes of the nose and eyes, as well as in the respiratory system.
The main ways of adenovirus spread are:
- Air-dropping. Viruses enter the body from the air, into which particles of the patient's saliva have fallen.
- Contact-household. Infection of children occurs when particles of dust on toys, furniture, clothes, household objects enter the body.
- Oral-fecal. Adenoviruses become infected by using poorly purified water, unwashed vegetables and fruits. The child can get infected if he does not wash his hands before eating. Toddlers pull into the mouth various objects on which the microbes are. Adenovirus infection occurs when swimming in water bodies contaminated with sewage.
Note: From the moment of illness, a person is contagious to others within 2 weeks. But sometimes viruses can persist in the body for longer (up to 3-4 weeks).
Types of disease, complications
Adenovirus infection in children manifests itself with varying degrees of severity.
1 degree (easy). Duration of the disease is approximately 7 days. The course is uncomplicated, the symptoms can be easily eliminated.
2 degree (medium-heavy). The disease lasts 3 weeks, is periodically complicated by the sequential damage of various organs.
3 degree (heavy). The course of the disease is complicated by the entry of viruses into the brain, the attachment of a bacterial infection.
The most frequent complications in infecting adenovirus infants can be bacterial pneumonia (pneumonia) , inflammation of the middle ear and mucous membranes of the paranasal sinuses (sinusitis), as well as bronchitis.
The older child has inflammatory processes in the membranes of the brain ( meningitis , encephalitis), the cornea of the eye (conjunctivitis). The complication resulting from a viral infection can also be an inflammation of the appendix .
The disease occurs in a typical and atypical form. It all depends on the degree of symptoms. Atypical form the symptoms are smoothened. A person is a virus carrier, although there may not be obvious signs of a disease.
Video: How is adenovirus infection manifested?
Symptoms of infection
First of all, with a typical form of the disease in a child , the temperature rises to 38 ° -39 °. It is difficult to bring down the febrifuge. It can last up to 7 days.
There is perspiration and sore throat, difficulty swallowing. The child does not eat well. Due to congestion, the nose is not sleeping well. Due to intoxication with the products of the vital activity of the virus, he develops weakness, a headache. Infants often develop seizures.
There is a runny nose. Initially, the mucus is abundant and transparent, then thickens and acquires a green tint. There is a purulent inflammation of pharyngeal tonsils , a white coating appears on them.
Because of the defeat of the intestinal mucosa and inflammation of its lymph nodes in the baby, the stomach hurts, there is a frequent loose stool with an admixture of mucus, vomiting appears. This symptom often occurs in children under 2 years of age.
The patient is tortured by a protracted cough (at first it is dry, then it becomes wet). On the 4th-6th day of the disease, a child may develop conjunctivitis. Blush eyes, there are purulent discharge. There is a thread, photophobia. The eyelids swell.
The baby becomes flaccid, pale, his cervical lymph nodes increase. There may be an increase in the spleen and liver.
Types of adenoviral diseases
Depending on which way the infection has penetrated the body and what organs affected first, distinguish several types of adenovirus diseases that have characteristic symptoms.
Pharyngoconjunctival fever. Typical are high fever, runny nose, sore throat when swallowing, lack of appetite, cough, red eyes, lachrymation. In this form the disease manifests itself most often. The malaise lasts 2-4 weeks.
Qatar upper respiratory tract. There are signs of inflammation of the upper respiratory tract: a small cough and runny nose, redness of the throat, a slight increase in lymph nodes, shortness of breath. The temperature does not rise above 38 °. As a rule, there are no complications.
Tonsillopharyngitis. The amygdala is affected. Severe sore throat arises from the spread of the inflammatory process not only to the pharyngeal, but also to the palatine tonsils. Pain gives in the ear. The streptococcal infection joins, therefore on tonsils there is a small eruption. Submandibular and cervical nodes become dense and painful. In addition, there are a runny nose, conjunctivitis, cough. Sometimes the disease proceeds without raising the temperature, but the child is shivering. There is weakness, apathy, the baby is capricious.
Adenoviral pneumonia. Severe form of the disease, in which the child has symptoms of respiratory failure (dyspnea, cyanotic nasolabial triangle, pallor, febrile condition, vomiting that does not bring relief, cramps are possible). Treatment is complicated by relapses. The painful condition lasts from 3 weeks to 1.5 months.
Hypnotic conjunctivitis. First the defeat of one eye occurs, and then manifestations appear on the second. There is reddening of the conjunctiva, tear marks appear, followed by purulent discharge, as well as a gray coating in the form of a film covering the mucous membrane of the eye. After 1-2 weeks after a simple treatment, the symptoms disappear.
Intestinal adenovirus infection. Disease of this type often occurs in children under the age of 1 year. Within 3-4 days the child has diarrhea, vomiting, and body temperature rises to 38 °. At the same time, a runny nose and cough appear.
Adenoviral mesenenitis. Characteristic symptoms are acute paroxysmal pain in the abdomen in the absence of diarrhea, as well as fever, nausea, vomiting. Sometimes such a disease is mistaken for appendicitis. There may be complications resulting from bacterial damage to organs (sore throat, pneumonia, pleurisy and others).
During the diagnosis, there are signs that differentiate adenovirus from other SARS, infectious mononucleosis , diphtheria, fungal infections of the mucous membranes. The following examination is carried out:
- blood test for antibodies to adenovirus infection (fluorescent antibody method);
- microscopic examination of washings from the nasopharynx;
- analysis of feces to detect viruses in it and eliminating suspicions of the parasitic nature of the intestinal disease;
- scraping from the conjunctival sac of the eye to detect adenoviruses or other infections in it.
Diagnosis is based on external specific manifestations of adenovirus infection (the presence of fever, changes in the state of the lymph nodes, signs of inflammation of the respiratory organs).
Treatment is usually done at home. Hospitalization is made only in the case of complications, especially in adenovirus infection in the infant.
In the acute period of the disease, bed rest is necessary. After recovery for another week, it is important to limit the child's physical activity.
It is desirable to often ventilate the room, moisten the air. The temperature in the room should be 18 ° -20 °. Wet cleaning should be done.
If the child refuses to eat, it should not be forcibly fed. The main thing is that he consumes more liquid in a warm form (compote, chamomile tea, milk with honey ).
When children are ill with conjunctivitis in the room, it is necessary to create a twilight. You should not allow watching TV, playing computer games.
It is used mainly to relieve symptoms. Antibiotics for viral diseases are useless. They are prescribed only in the event of bacterial complications. Specific antiviral drugs against adenovirus do not exist.
Preparations of immuno-strengthening action (anaferon, arbidol). They are used not only for treatment, but also for the prevention of viral childhood diseases.
Antipyretics. If the child has a high temperature (above 38 ° C) and there is a risk of seizures, paracetamol is used (an analgesic drug that is not only available in the form of tablets, but also in the form of candles and syrups). You can use ibuprofen or its analogue nurofen, which have anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effect.
Warning: Using the drugs, it is necessary to observe the dosage indicated in the instructions and prescribed by the doctor, otherwise there will be side effects (violation of the kidneys, liver, nervous and digestive system).
Cough medicine. They can not be given without the doctor's appointment, since stopping the excretion of sputum will lead to pneumonia and the transition of the disease to a chronic form. If the child has a dry cough, then funds such as bromhexine or ACC are used to help liquefy sputum.
With a damp cough to give the child such means is prohibited, since they only strengthen it. In this case, expectorant medications are used to excrete sputum, such as mucaltin and its analogues (pertusin, Dr. Mom, gedelix).
Eye preparations. With conjunctivitis, the eyes are periodically cleansed with a solution of furacilin. Used antiviral oksolinovaya ointment (it is laid down the lower eyelid), as well as drops of ophthalmoferon.
Remedies for the common cold. For cleansing, the nose is washed with salt water or saline. When washing the nose with small children, it is recommended to use a pipette and a device for sucking off mucus. To remove the swelling of the mucous membrane and to facilitate nasal breathing, vasoconstrictive drops (otrivine, nasivin) are prescribed. They do not use more than 5 days, as the drug may become addictive.
For a gargle of a throat use a solution of soda, infusions of a camomile, calendula or ready antiseptic agents (furatsilin, miramistin).
Vitamins. They are appointed as a means of fortifying action.
Video: Treatment of viral diseases in children. When antibiotics are needed
It is permissible to give the child as a sweatshop tea with raspberries or honey.
With a dry cough, it is recommended to drink warm, alkaline mineral water without gas (Borjomi, for example). It can be drunk as a mixture with warm milk.
To make it easier for the child to cough up phlegm, you can make soda inhalations. To bury in the nose and eliminate inflammation of the mucosa used beet or carrot juice.